Lyophilized EHV-1 vaccine inactivated and adjuvanted by Quillaja Saponaria Molina extract

Background: Equine Herpes virus-1 (EHV-1) infections in horses induce several clinical signs of disease (respiratory distress, abortion, neonatal foal death and neuropathogenic disorders), Causing highly economic losses. Improving of EHV-1 vaccine is the main way to protect horses against the disease and saving economic.
Objectives: Production and evaluation of EHV-1 inactivated vaccine in lyophilized form to enhance the stability and thus the marketability of a product
Methods: Three different lyophilized vaccines formula, inactivated and/or adjuvanted with saponin were prepared. Formula 1 contains Lyophilized EHV-1 reconstituted at time of inoculation in saponin as inactivator and adjuvant, Formula 2 contains Lyophilized EHV-1 with saponin as inactivator and adjuvant then reconstituted at time of inoculation in saline, Formula 3 contains Lyophilized EHV-1 inactivated with Binary Ethyleneimine (BEI) and reconstituted at time of inoculation in saponin as adjuvant. Different saponin concentration were used with each formula (1, 1.5, 2 mg/dose). Immune responses stimulate by such formulae was estimated in mice and horses using ELISA and CFT. Also shelf life of the prepared vaccines was examined.
Results: The highest ELISA antibody titer in mice was (2100, 2250, 3000) induced by the prepared formulae 1, 2 and 3 respectively were obtained by 1mg Saponin /dose. Immunization of horses with two dose (one month interval) of the prepared three vaccines formula contain 1mg/ dose saponin, revealed that the mean CF antibody titers against EHV-1 were increased 4- fold within two weeks, (from 8, 8, 10 at time of booster dose to 32, 32, 48 at two weeks later, in sera of horses inoculated with formulae 1, 2 and 3 respectively). Monitoring the immune response of the inoculated horses up to seven months by ELISA was showed a significant increasing in EHV-1 antibody titers at 21 days post booster dose than the pre- booster (from 300, 330, 570 to 730, 880, 1170) for the three formulae respectively which indicate good immunogenicity of the vaccines. The antibody titer reached its peak at 2 month post inoculation (MPI) then began to decline gradually till 6 MPI for the three formulae. The three formulae of lyophilized vaccine kept its antigenic potency when stored at 4˚C until one yare.
Conclusions: The three vaccine formulae were good immunogenic. formula 2 is more safe as it contain less chemicals and can be produced by lower costs than formula 3 which given higher antibody titers.
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J. of Virol. Sci., Vol. 1:
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